Monthly Archives: January 2016

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Versailles Treaty

Category : END OF WWI

Versailles Treatythe-treaty-of-versailles

  • After the WWI ended, 32 nations who participated in the war came to Versailles on January 18th 1919 to hold the Paris Peace Conference. Countries in the Central Power weren’t invited because they lost for the war. Russia was also not there because it was having civil war between the communist government and the provisional government.
  • S. delegate Woodrow Wilson listed fourteen points to establish fair and for a long period of peace:
    • This is the fourteen points Wilson made, if you want to have a look, please click into this link. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/fourteen_points.shtml
    • However, France and British disagreed with Wilson’s fourteen points that they wanted to punish Germany and ensure Germany wont have ability to start wars.
    • After discussing for six months, Treaty of Paris (Treaty of Versailles) was signed on June 28th

th-6(If you want to have a look at the primary document of Versailles Treaty please click into this link.http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/versailles.htm)

  • Because of the treaty, Germany lost their territories and paid reparations to the Alliance under total blame. Also, there were restrictions on military forces for Germany.
  • The Treaty of Versailles was unfair to most of the nations especially Germany so most of them were unsatisfied with the treaty.

 


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Armistice

Category : END OF WWI

Armisticeth-5

  • Germany was in the alliance with Turkey and Austria-Hungary, which was called the Central Powers. As the war kept lasting, the Central Powers’ military power was way less then the beginning. In contrast, with the help of U.S. the Allies had fresh troops and new weaponries.
  • Turkey signed an armistice at the end of October, Austria-Hungary followed on November 3 because they knew that their army needed a rest and they had no more power to fight any longer (Armistice – The End of World War I).
  • Germany without the help from Turkey and Austria-Hungary couldn’t fight with the Allies for any longer so it soon decided to sign armistice with the Allies.
  • On December 11th 1918, the Allies and the Central Power signed armistice to stop the war in Paris.
  • At 11o’clock December 11th 1918, the First World War One ended.Armistice-headline

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Russian Revolution

Category : END OF WWI

Russian RevolutionRussian had over 8 million casualties during the war, which caused a huge decrease on population of Russian.

Kronstadt demonstration 1917

  • Although women were also put to work in factories, Russian was unable to produce enough weapons for the War since most of the soldiers were put into the war.
  • The rule of Russian, Czar Nicolas II relied too much on his wife Alexandra that he rarely made his own decisions.
  • The Russian people were fractious, dissatisfied and eager for change (worldwar1, com).
  • March Revolution
    • Women have worked to much to produce staffs for the war that they didn’t get time to rest so they were very dissatisfied with that.
    • About 10000 women in the worker class met in the city of Petro demanding peace and bread and as more people were joining there was a serious situation that nobody was working in the factories to produce weapons for the war (Spielvogel, Glencoe World History).russian_revolution_october_1917_vladimir_ilyich_lenin_ulyanov_1870_1924_russian_revolutionary
  • The legislative government Duma eventually urged Czar Nicolas II to step down and formed the provisional government. However most people were dissatisfied with the new government and they were supporting the soviets council, which was composed by mainly workers.
  • Later, the Bolsheviks under V. I. Lenin’s control stood out. Because they promised citizens that they would provide them peace, land and bread, the Russian people were content with this government so Bolsheviks successfully gained supports from Russian people.
  • Lenin took over the government and get Russia out of the WWI. The Russian government changed to communist.

 

 


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Major Battles

Category : During WWI

There were a lot of small battles during WWI but only five major battles. The following were the five main battles during WWI.

  1. Battle of Verdun:
    th-3
  • This was the longest single war during WWI, started in February 1916 and ended in December 1916. (The Battle of Verdun, co)
  • It was a battle between Germany and French. There were at least 70 thousand casualties resulted from this battle.
  • German Chief of General Staff, von Falkenhayn planned to put a mass of soldiers to Verdun in France to defeat France quickly, but France was well prepared and they had new troops so they weren’t defeated by Germany but kept fighting with Germany in Verdun.
  • Weapon used: flame projectors, gas bomb, tear bomb and bombers.
  • Strategy used: trench warfare.
  • Both Germany and France had huge loss on soldiers.
  1. Battle of Somme
  • This was a battle of Britain and France’s operation to attack Germany and this was the biggest battle throughout the entire WWI that it cost the most and had casualties over 1.3 million.WWI_British_cemetery_at_Abbeville-2
  • This battle was originally aimed to distract Germany’s attention on the battle of Verdun. The battle started in June 1916 and ended in November 1916.
  • Weapon used: tank (this was the first time for Britain to use tanks)
  • Result: no one won but Britain and France recaptured 200 square kilometer land from Germany.
  1. Battle of Jutland
  • This was the greatest naval battle in WWI and it was fired between Britain and Germany.
  • Germany wanted to gain the sea supremacy through defeating Britain in the sea but they failed because Britain had more naval power.
  1. First battle of Marne
  • This happened in 1914, at the beginning of WWI.Battle-of-Verdun
  • Germany was trying to attack France quickly through invading Marne but because of French new troops they failed.
  • The fail of Germany from attacking Marne caused formation of the stalemate on the western front.
  • (If you want to know more information about the stalemate on the western front, please go the menu and then go to the During WWI – Strategy page.)
  1. Second battle of Marne
  • The fifth major battle was the second battle of Marne.Marne
  • This battle started in and May 1918 ended in June 1918.
  • The Second Battle of the Marne was a battle between the Allies and Germany and it ended with the first allied offensive victory of 1918 (Second battle of Marne, com)
  • Because Germany have already been participating in the war for a long time so it was lots weaker than at the beginning. However, as US entered the war, it supported the Allies with fresh troops and more weaponries to fight against with Germany.
  • Because of the fresh troops and weapons, the Allies won this battle and turned the war to a new side that Germany was going weaker but the Allies still had enough power.

 

 

 

 


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New Weaponry

Category : During WWI

New Weaponrywwi_gas_mask

  • There were lots of new weaponries invented because of militarism that all the nations wanted to improve their weapons and technology in order to strengthen themselves. However, although they have invented new technologies, armies were still using the old tactics.
  • The first new technology was the poison gas. One kind of the poison gas was the mustard gas (chlorine gas) which would cause soldier to be blind (org). If soldiers became blind during the war, it would definitely be beneficial for the other side. However, since they were using the old tactics, nations found out that when they were using the poison gas, both sides of the soldiers would be poisoned including themselves so later they have invented gas mask for poison gas.WorldWarI-1
  • More advanced guns (automatic guns) were also invented which directly caused more casualties.
  • Planes were used for battles. At the beginning planes were only used to spot enemies but later started with Germany’s airship zeppelins, airplanes were also put into battles to fighting.
  • Tanks and submarines were also used into the war. Especially the submarines, for naval race and the unrestricted submarine warfare, submarines played important role.

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Soldier’s Perspective

Category : During WWI

At the beginning of the war:

  • Soldiers were willing to attend the war because they thought the war would end in a short period.WWI
  • As the nations’ leaders were preparing for the war, there were lots of propagandas brainwashing the soldiers to participate in the war.
  • Soldiers were brainwashed that they thought participating in the war would be proud.

At the end of the war:

  • Soldiers wanted to stop the war because tens of soldiers were killed or wounded and the living conditions of the soldiers were extremely terrible. For example in the trench warfare there were no clean water, fresh food and even b
    asic sanitation could not be provided.
  • In the last year of the war the Russian soldiers refused to continue fighting because they missed their home and they were tired.article-2386912-1B3361D7000005DC-116_964x905
  • The following was sentence said by soldiers during the war which showed how horrible the war was and how fearful the soldiers wer

“You eat beside the dead; you drink beside the dead, you relieve yourself beside the dead and you sleep beside the dead.”

“People will read that the front line was Hell. How can people begin to know what that one word – Hell – means.”(The Battle of Verdun, Historylearningsite.co)


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Strategy

Category : During WWI

Schlieffen-Plan-1905

Schlieffen’s Plan

  • Because Germany didn’t have a lot of soldier as other European countries have, Germany decided to have a short-term war. Schlieffen gave his opinion of the short-term war.
  1. Focus military power on the western front to defeat Paris through Belgium then surround most of the French army in 6 months.
  2. Leave some power on the eastern border of German to keep Russia at bay and prevent Russia to help France before they surround French army.
  3. After successfully defeated France, shift the major military power to attack Russia
  • However his plan failed. Reasons why his plan failed.
    • Because French military leaders loaded two thousand more fresh troops to the French border Marne then Germany couldn’t quickly defeat French but turned into a stalemate with France. During the stalemate between French and Germany, soldiers stayed in the trenches in the ground in order to hide themselves because if they showed up, they would be immediately shot (killed).schlieffen1
    • When Germany was attacking Belgium as a way to get into France, Belgium didn’t surrender and they fight for pretty long time, which wasted Germany soldiers and provide French time to prepare for German’s invasion.

 

 

 


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Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

Category : US In WWI

Unrestricted submarine warfareuboat-periscope

  • Started by Germany.
  • Major factor leading US to join the war
  • On January 9th, 1917, Germany announced to use the unrestricted submarine war fare.(historylearningsite.co)

 

Reasons why Germany started this tactic:

  • Germany wanted to swipe Britain away from the war.
  • Germany believed that if the consequences of the unrestricted submarine warfare were shocking enough, America would keep staying away from the war.
  • They believed that America would be afraid of them if they sucessfully cut the vessels of alliances and defeat the British royal navy.

unrest2

  • Unfortunately this tactic totally provoked America because Germany sank 3 American ships during the unrestricted submarine warfare

 

Reasons why United States entered the war:

  • Because of the unrestricted submarine warfare (Germany sank 3 American ships).
  • Zimmerman Telegram
  • A telegram sent from German Foreign Secretary in February 1917 aiming to ally with Mexico.u46
  • The telegram tells that if Mexic
    o would like to ally with German, they would help Mexico to recapture land from US.
  • The telegram was intercepted by Britain and British showed it to US.
  • US was extremely angry that they declared war on Germany in April 1917

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U-Boats

Category : US In WWI

U boat is a kind of submarine, which was first used by German naval powers.U-99

  • Germany aimed to cut the vessels of allies through the Atlantic Ocean by sinking merchant and delivering ships to alliance countries.
  • Having naval race with Britain.
  • But once made mistake that they sunk a British ship, which had few American citizens on.
  • Evoked US’s anger and led to the unrestricted submarine war.

(If you want to know further information about the unrestricted submarine warfare, please go the menu and check the unrestricted submarine warfare page.)


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Imperialism

Category : Causes of WWI

cartoon--imperialism-1885-grangerImperialism is when a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subjects to their rule. Imperialists in Europe were mainly strong nations in Europe, especially Britain, France, and also Russia in Asia. These countries were heading to raw materials for technology and economic improvements.

As a newly developed country, Germany had less colonies then Britain, which was a strong country for already hundreds of years. Since the new resources (amount of country to be colonized) were limited, Germany found out that wherever they were trying to expand their territory, either Britain or France has already colonized the country that Germany wanted. As the chancellor of Germany at that time Bernhard von Bülow said in his speech: “ We do not want to put anyone in our shadow, but we also demand our place in the sun.” (GHDI – Document), Germany demanded more lands for colonies.

Because of the desire of gaining more land for European countries, competition started forming between these countries and the tension between them increased.

Here is a graph showing countries all over the world being colonized by European countries.world1914r


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